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среда, 6 апреля 2011 г.

ჩემი საყვარელი დევები


(mariam wiklauris saymawvilo wignis  `brandi-brundis” STabeWdilebiT)
ramdenime wlis win eTnografiul eqspediciasTan erTad TuSeTSi viyavi. ojax-ojax, kardakar, xalxur saganZurs vkrebdiT mTqmelisa Tu avtor-mTqmelisagan. gansakuTrebuli gafacicebiT ki maT naambobSi devebs, alebsa da qajebs daveZebdiT. gvindoda ise mogvexelTebina adamianebis es `dauZinebeli mtrebi,” rogorc `erT miTosur dros” isini moixelTebdnen xolme Cveni jiSisas da gamoulocvel SiSs dascemdnen.
mefiqreboda, rom devisa Tu grZelTmiani alis mxilvels  romelime sofelSi usaTuod gadaveyrebodi. amgvari imedi Zveli gamocdilebiT miRvioda, radgan ufro adrindel, mTiuleTis eqspediciaSi, xadis xeobis mkvidrni didi sijiutiT moiTxovdnen, uryevlad gverwmuna maTi monaTxrobi da meti damajereblobisaTvis maqciebTan Seyris geografiul arealsac gviTiTebdnen. codvas ver vityvi, ramdenime TuSma mTxrobelmac gaixsena bebo-papebisgan ganagonari warsuli ambebi – TebJorikas, alisa Tu devebis arsebobaze. maxsovs gulianadac macines, roca omaloSi erT alagze mimiTiTes, _ magas `kudianTa koperativs” veZaxiTo. sabolood ki ase damaSoSmines: `dev-qajni Cven TviTona varT, isini arc arsebobdnen da arc iarsebeben, magis ar SegeSindeso,” – mTqmelic maxsovs, 56 wlis qristo bequriZe sofel diklodan.
ase iyo Tu ise, savele muSaobisas eSxSi Sesuli, bejiTad vcdilobdi `Sebrunebul Wliks” an uSvelebel nafexurs mainc gadavyrodi sadme. maSin ras warmovidgendi, rom ase Zalumad naocnebari Cemi qveynis xevxuvebSi, exebsa da saTibebSi ki ara, wlebis Semdgom, sadag, urbanul garemoSi, samuSao magidasTan amixdeboda.
mogaxsenebT ras vgulisxmob da ram momagona wlebis winandeli Cemi saeqspedicio gamocdileba. maSin iseTi grZnoba dameufla, rom qarTul folklorSi kargad cnobil devTmebrZolebs, RvTisSvilebad wodebul gmirebs kopalasa da iaxsars ise mouwadinebiaT, devebi ara mxolod aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTianeTidan, mis mkvidrTa mexsierebidanac ki gaudevniaT. magram, arc ase yofila saqme...
Cvens bumberazebs uxuvliaT, azavTebulan da Tavi erTi jadosnuri wignisTvis SeufarebiaT. albaT, icodnen, jadosnuri wignebi sicocxles rom axangrZliveben. Zvirfaso mkiTxvelo, imgvarad aferadebul wignze giambob, rom masSi SesaRwevad arc Sen daiSureb Zalisxmevas da arc devebs SeuSindebi iaxsar-kopalas, pirquSisa Tu nacarqeqias darad. am wigns `brandi-brundi” hqvia, mis avtors ki _ mariam wiklauri.
`brandi-brundi” Zveli, `abrakadabruli” Selocva Tua, sxvagvarad rogor SeZlebda mariami, qveynis dauZinebeli mtrebi – devebi, erT sivrceSi keTilmezoblurad daesaxlebina kus, zRarbis, kaliebis, obobebis, yanCas, bus, cicqna gogonebis, gveleSapebis, iebisa da enZelebis, oCopintresa Tu oCodalis gverdiT ise, rom frCxilic aravis wamostkiveboda. Tqven albaT fiqrobT: uSvelebeli galavniT arian wignis mkvidri bumberazebi danarCeni samyarosgan gamijnulni da imitomaco... arada, maT mxolod erTi wnelis Robe hyofT, romelsac ase aweria: `devebis ambebi...” diax, es aris da es. ara, TandaTan vrwmundebi, yvelaferi jadosnuri sityvebis bralia, Torem poeti, Tanac qalbatoni, ra ZaliT moaxerxebda, erT dros qveynis amomgdebni adamianuri wes-kanonisTvis daemorCilebina, da gana mxolod daemorCilebina _ maTi Cacma-daxurva da swavla-ganaTlebac etvirTa.
mokled, Zalian minda am saocari wignis binadrebze giamboT da im Robis iqiT gadagaxedoT, sadac `winiJmis” protagonistebi saxloben. wignis sxva mkvidrni, imedia, ar gagviwyrebian maTi mezobeli bumberazebis cxovrebiT gamorCeulad rom davinteresdiT, vgoneb, avtorisTvisac sakraluri unda iyos devebiT kompaqturad dasaxlebuli es ubani. ydac gansakuTrebulad swored amitom gvauwyebs _ wigni melanias, baWiWauris, Tadias, SavSalikas, migrisa da sxva devebis ambebs rom gvpirdeba. ambebs ki aRar ikiTxavT?! es Cveni baybayebi ise galaRebulan da `gaxvivebulan”, tols ar udeben TavianT winaprebs, gansakuTrebiT ki maT, `qarTuli xalxuri poeziis” or mSvenier nimuSSi rom mkvidroben. es xalxuri leqsebi _ `devebis qorwili” da `devebis amomwyveti”, a. SaniZes rogorc Zalze sayuradRebo da saintereso, Tavis `xevsurul poeziaSi” Seutania, mniSvnelovani komentarebiTa da mravali variantiT. sxvaTa Soris, `devebis amomwyvetis” erT-erTi devi, ucnauri da saxaliso saxeliT – baWiWauri, mariam wiklaurTanac gvxvdeba. xalxuri mTqmeli ase agviwers mas:
`wveriT xkra baWiWaursa, farTi-farT gaegdebia
 daeca baWiWauri, totiT bRunevda xevSia”.
mariamis baWiWaurs ki _
`arc Wkua ram abadia, arc farCa, arc WiWnauri.
      arc leqsis ram gaegeba, arc fanduris da wignis.”  
garda saxelisa, saavtoro leqsebis personaJebs xalxur TvistomTan kidev erTi mniSvnelovani saerTo aqvT _ mkvidrad Sezavebuli karnavaluri da groteskuli elferi. meti sicxadisTvis, ar davizaroT da ufro vrclad mimovixiloT es siaxlove.
xalxuri nimuSebis groteskuloba mudmiv ormagobas, opoziciasa da alogikurobas gulisxmobs, Tanadroulad, am opoziciaTa arsebobasac Seicavs. es paradoqsi qmnis kidec groteskul momentebs, rac uxvad ipoveba qarTul folklorSi. Cveni azriT, amgvari groteskuli midrekilebiT xasiaTdeba `cocxali tyuilis” niSniT gaerTianebuli mravali qarTuli xalxuri nimuSi. am nimuSTa integraciis umTavresi mastimulirebeli maTSi asaxul movlenaTa `sasicilo” xasiaTi da amorfulobaa, universaluri stigma ki – realurobis, damajereblobisa da utyuarobis damkvidrebis mcdeloba. utyuarobisken swrafva warmoSobs swored im groteskul viTarebas, romelTa aspeqtebic gamoikveTeba CvenTvis saintereso nimuSebis moxilvisas.
xalxur leqss, `devebis qorwils,” amgvari komentari amSvenebs: `roca mTqmelma `leqsi” SekrebilebaSi warmoTqva, xalxi `siciliT iRupebodao.” Tavad mkvlevris, akaki SaniZis Sefaseba ki aseTia: `leqsi warmoadgens fantazias da sayuradReboa imiT, Tu rogori cocxali suraTebis daxatva SeuZlia xalxs devebis garSemo arsebul TqmulebaTa niadagze”. marTalia,AaRniSnulia, rom leqsi fantaziaa, magram amavdroulad, is `cocxal suraTebsac” gvTavazobs, rac kidev erTxel mowmobs am leqsTaTvis niSneul groteskulobas.
 utyuarobis efeqti ki xalxur qmnilebebSi amgvari formulebiT miiRweva: `martua ara gegonasT, _ amxanigeb myav sxvebio”, an kidev: `me ki sakvmisas gamavZver, devebs vekvlevi verasa;” `amagis maleqsobeli, devebis Zmobil vxdebia...”
axla vnaxoT, mariam wiklauri ra xerxiT cdilobs damajerebloba mianiWos `brandi-brundis” devebis samyaros. leqsi `sizmara”, romliTac devebis jadosnuri samflobelos kari ganexvneba patara mkiTxvels, ase iwyeba:
`Citi Ciora daskupda vaJas sasTumlis Tavzeo:
ade, nu gZinavs, vaJiko, Sexe, vin modis gzazeo!
leqsis sawyisi ukve paradoqsuli da groteskulia, radgan mas `sizmara” hqvia, avtori ki gmiris `Zil-sizmridan” gamofxizlebas cdilobs, radgan `zRapridan gamoqceula cxraTaviani devio”, biWi ki masTan Sesayrelad unda Seemzados:
`xevis Tavs daxvda vaJiko, wamoaqcia mxarzeo,
icocxle, dRe daayena, lafi daasxa Tavzeo.”
patara gmirma kvlav `zRapreTs” abruna goliaTi, Tavad ki isev Zils mieca: `ar ganZreula dilamde, mklavic zed edo xmalzeo.”
mariam wiklauris leqsis am sasrul striqonSic cxadad ikiTxeba xalxuri versiebis fardi utyuarobis avtoriseuli magiuri formula. sizmar-cxadis mijnaze mebrZol patara gmirs xelT xmali SerCenia da ise CasZinebia. xmliT, am utyuari alibiT, poeti mkiTxvelsa da `gamgonebels” daeWvebis safuZvels zustad iseve uspobs, rogorc xalxuri mTqmeli am sityvebiT: `eg Tqvenis gamarjvebisa! sru marTals vambob yvelasa.”
devebis mariamuli samyaro marTlac mravalferia. ras aRar moixilavs iq did-patara, Tuki ra Tqma unda, iyoCaRebs da fexs auqcevs urCTa ubanSi moboriale cxraTavian devs, cxraSvilian devqalsa Tu sanadirod gamosul, `oqrosbumbula gvritis” maZebar Zmeb-devebs. samSvidobomde ki Tavbrudamxvevi Tavgadasavlebia, Tuki mzad xarT, erTad gaveSuroT...
modi, pirvelad, celqi devebis dedas, melanias vewvioT:
`devis qali melania
orTav TvaliT elamia.
cxra SvilisTvis fafas xarSavs,
gars exveva yvelania.”
did saqmeSia cxra Svilis patroni, ver audis patara devebis  dapurebas. verc fafiT da verc zRaprebiT Seuqcevia gaumaZRrebi. rogorc SemTxveviT ar arian mariam wiklauris devebi cxrani Tu cxraTavianni, aseve SemTxveviTi ar unda iyos melanias ase mxiarulad aRniSnuli `sielmec”. mavani ifiqrebs, Svilebis mravalricxovnobam da maTma mourjuleblobam xom ar auria gaZeZebul dedas Tavgzac da Tvalebico?! me ki mgonia, Cven mier ukve damowmebulma devebis leqsebma Tu Seaxsenes avtors Tavi. `devebis qorwilSi” mTqmeli ase agviwers erT-erTi devis garegnobas:
`Tval uzis Sua SublSia, sacris oden ki ver asa,
meore kuWulaSia, ukeniskena xenavsa.”
`fexn raim edges mrudada, Tvaln esxdes yuris zeTia.”
swored am xsovnis wil, msubuqi, bavSvebisTvis naklebad sazareli garegnoba SeurCevia poets devqalisaTvis, Tumc devebis dedisTvis xasiaTis simtkice mainc SeunarCunebia, atirebuli Svilebisgan gabezrebuli:        
 `adga, bolos, melania,
 orTav TvaliT elamia,
 da saSveli rom ver naxa,
 kargad tyipa yvelani – aaa!”
arc devT gaumaZRroba unda iyos SemTxveviT aRniSnuli  mariamis devebis ciklis sxvadasxva leqsSi. SevecadoT gavarkvioT, am mxriv miTosuri genebi Tu imemkvidres `brandi-brundis” binadarma xalxuri sityvierebis ganuyrelma arsebebma da gamovkveToT ra SeiZines maT yofierebidan. aki cnobilia, rom `devebs winaT unavardniaT xalxze: uJletiaT, uWamiaT; wyalic ki ar usmeviaT ara sulierisaTvis. qveyana Sewuxebuli, SeZrwunebuli yofila imaTgan”. aqac Tavs Segvaxsenebs mariam wiklauris poeturi didostatobiT aRwerili pasaJi leqsidan `baWiWauri”:
            `adlian  xinklebs gaRojavs,
             mere simaZRriT xarobs,
             saklavis ZvlebiT savse aqvs
             cixis axloSi xaro.
             cixegoridan fSaniviT
             Camodis xinklis wveni.
             xalxi ki wydeba SimSiliT...
             esec ambavi Zveli.”
poetis alRo da misi leqsebis mxatvruli Rirsebac is gaxlavT, rom am leqsebTan ziareba ufros-umcross misTvis sasurvel da sacnaur ambavs Tanabrad warmousaxavs. zrdasrulma mkiTxvelebma, SesaZloa, alegoriuladac davsaxoT es nimuSi da Cveni arcTu dalxenili cxovrebidan mravalgvari paralelis survilic aRgveZras. dameTanxmebiT, amonaridi fantaziis gamZafrebis saSualebas namdvilad gvitovebs. zemoT vambobdi, sainteresoa, ra SeiZines yofidan Cvenma bumberazebma-meTqi da swored amas vgulisxmobdi. erTgvar igavur saburvelSi, vfiqrob, devebis ciklis yvela leqsia gaxveuli. patara mkiTxvelamde ki, bunebrivia, oden miTosuri drois anasxletebi, `Zveli ambebi” aRwevs.
gaxsovT albaT, genetikur gaumaZRrobaze mogaxsenebdiT: `mudamdRe auRebeli sufra edgaTo”, _ ase gvimowmebs `amiranianis” xalxuri gadmocema devebis cxovrebis nirs. `maiRiT sanakveToi – ver vaZRebT tatlayverasa”, `diddideb yanweb moiRes, ver aZRebs mamlayverasa”... `imoden WurWel Camodges, aq me ver vaTqmev enasa...” ase ki xalxuri leqsebi gvidastureben bumberazTa uzomo madasa da `moupiravi” muclebis ambavs. mariam wiklaurma ki amgvarad ganago:
     ` _ vin miirTmevs mawons? Sig yuas vin awobs?
       _ mawons devis biWi Wams, - Ziri aRar uCans jams.
 _ jami iqca qvevrad, cota iqca bevrad.
 _ Wams da Wams, Wams da Wams, - Ziri? – Ziri arsad Cans.”     
am leqskarnavals Mmariami kidev erT mSvenier poetur nimuSs moayolebs ise, rom arc miTosur dro-sivrces scildeba da leqsis siuJets uzado damajereblobasac unarCunebs:
    ` _ miTxari, devo Tadia, ram agayena adrian?
_ biWi gveyola wuxelis, rZiT amoivso muceli.
_ dedis rZe ras eyofoda, axla TeTr irems vuwveli.
_ TeTri irmisac ar hyofnis, ar vici, riTi vuSveli.”
 svanebis warmodgeniT, irems qalRmerTi dali mfarvelobda. Tuki cxoveli TeTri feriT, Sublze TeTri daRiT an sxva uCveulo niSniT irCeoda, mas usaTuod RvTaebrivi warmomavloba hqonda, an Tavad RvTaebas ganasaxierebda. masTan monadiris isaric uZluri xdeboda.  modi, Tavi imiT vinugeSoT, rom Tadias iremic nadirTmfarvelis warmogzavnilia da misi rZe patara goliaTs uciloblad daanayrebs.
ai, devis qals ki warmoidgineT, `atria” mounatria. Wamis survils ise autania, rom adrianad auyenebia da uSvelebeli koconic daugznia:
`qvabi Semodga cxra fuTi, Werxos avarda nafuti.
cecxls SeuZaxa rac rame ebada Zveli naburdi.”
magram daxeT bedisweras, kerZisTvis sasicocxlod mniSvnelovani komponenti – fqvili ar aRmoaCnda delikatesis surviliT Jinatanil bumberazs. ai, swored aq iwyeba maqciobis feierverki. vnaxoT, rogor umklavdeba sakuTar survils leqsis gmiri devqali:
          `xedavs, rom fqvili ara aqvs, adga da... Tovli gamocra,
          erbo adina aragvs. coms zelda mere sami dRe,
          Wra da abrtyela yinCad, qvabSi Cayara naWrebi,
    cxra dRe xarSavda ijras. keceulebic daacxo,
          imdeni comi hqonda, yinulis xaWos ayrida
                  mziTvSi moyolil qondars.”
albaT, arc isaa SemTxveviTi, `atriamonatruli” devi rom qalia. mariami arc aq uxvevs xalxuri tradiciiT gamyarebul gzas _ Tu ara qals, sxvas vis unda dakavSireboda nayofiereba, siuxve da simravle? gonebaSi, myisve, qarTuli folkloris `triksteri” qalebi amogvitivtivdebian, gansakuTrebiT _ samZimari. gavixsenoT xevsurTa sityvierebaSi daculi am metad ucnauri da araordinaruli, qajad wodebuli qalis miTur-groteskuli saxe. mraval `SaZlebasTan”  erTad, samZimars maqciobis unaric aqvs. sacole Wabukebs is adgilobrivi, nacnobi qaliSvilebis saxiT ecxadeba. qalRmerTs ucolo xoligasTanac ucxovria juaT elenes `aRiT”. erTxel qals dedamTilisaTvis xaxmatis xatSi wasaRebi masanTo-xmiadebis gamocxoba uTxovia. mas ki uTqvams – TviTon gaakeTeo. samZimars erTi TiTi erboTi didi qvabi xaviwi mouxarSavs. dedamTili mimxvdara, adamianTan rom ar hqonda saqme, qalRmerTi ki saCqarod gafrenila.
bunebrivia, xalxuri varianti analogi ar aris citirebul leqsSi aRwerili viTarebisa, magram poeti rom fertilobis saocrad xatovan suraTs da xalxur sinamdvilesTan Zalze miaxloebul pasaJs gvTavazobs, es udavoa. Cveni mogzauroba `brandi-brundis” samyaroSi kvlavac qalTa TemiT grZeldeba. zemoT aRwerili ambis Semdeg, gansakuTrebiT davinteresdi, rogor cxovroben devT ubnis qalebi, ras saqmianoben, ra uWirT, ra ulxinT da riT SeZleben `bataraebis” Seqcevas. imedi maqvs, mkiTxvelo, Senc fexdafex momdev, aq CamorCena ar egebis, SesaZloa, Zalze mniSvnelovani momenti gamogrCes. gana SeiZleba `devT qorwils” mimaval, uzomod mowadinebul A`angelina-pranWias”  gverdi avuqcioT ise, rom erTi Semamkobeli sityvac ar vuTxraT?!. saqorwilod axal farCasa da qoSebs yidulobs, Tavze ki basmis wasma ganuzraxavs. Turme klanWebic misaxedi aqvs: 
   `angelina? – im klanWebs
   erTi weli iSrobda...       
        amasobaSi `devT qorwilic gasrulda...” magram Tqven ar idardoT, Tavis morTvam fuWad rodi Cauara _Aangelina-pranWia mainc moxvda sayovelTao mxiarulebaSi, magram mizezi amjerad qorwili ki ara, Zeoba iyo. gavixsenoT, rom qorwili Zalze aqtualuri movlenaa xalxur sivrceSi. Cvens mier ukve araerTgzis damowmebul leqss xom asec hqvia _ `devebis qorwili”, leqsSi devTmebrZol `iaxsarze” ki vkiTxulobT: `devebs xqonia qorwili, uCqvefav simur wyalia”, amiranic qorwiliT galaRebul devebs Seeyreba:
             `devebsa hqonda qorwili, simRera amodioda,
             SegvipatiJes, SevediT, amirans puri hSioda.”
unda isic aRiniSnos, rom devebTan dakavSirebul xalxuri sityvierebis nimuSebSi qalebic aqtiurad prevalireben. xSirad isini moambe-mediatorebi arian _ ojaxs saeWvo arsebebis stumrobas atyobineben da saWiroebis Jams, saomradac Seamzadeben mamr devebs, an kidev erTgulad irjebian sayofiero saqmeebiT: `Txors sZaxda devebis deda, jara-xviStaki xvioda”... sifxizle da sifrTxile ki arc erT SemTxvevaSi aklia devis qals. aseTive aqtivobiT xasiaTdebian `brandi-brundis” binadari devTqalebic. mariam wiklauris maxvil Tvals arc ojaxisadmi maTi Tavdadeba gamoparvia da ase exmianeba xalxur pirvelwyaros: 
`dedila uziT banze,
bawars mSvildisTvis ugrexs,
xvivis devqalis jara,
guli uskdebaT nukrebs”.
 ai `devTbiWebis babos” ki romelsac `Svidi kaba acvia da cal-cali sabo”, sxva saqmianoba mounaxavs, uTvalavi leqsiTa da zRapriT arTobs patarebs, Tanac gozinays umzadebs:
`Sig yris nigozs,
 Txils da nuSs,
 gana cotas, aT-aT muWs”.
  sakvirvelia, magram am mondomebis miuxedavad, babalem mainc ver moaswro zamTrisaTvis gozinayi, ara da gana ar cdilobda, Tafls gamudmebiT urevda `nel-nela da mal-male”...
 SeuZlebelia rables `gargantua da pantagrueli” ar aesvetos Tvalwin am striqonebis mkiTxvels. rogorc xedavT, `cocxali tyuilisTvis” niSandoblivi kolosaluri masStabebi arc `brandi-brundis” personaJTaTvisaa ucxo da uCveulo. xalxur siuJetebSic xom viTarebis groteskuloba, xSirad, Wama-smis epizodebiT miiRweva. kvlav mariamul samyaroSi davbrundeT da davimowmoT am kuTxiT Zalze saintereso leqsi _ `rogor gaCnda Savi aragvi”:
` _ erbo? – asiod qila.
  _ kvercxi? – aTasi cali.
  _ cecxli? – tkacaniT dafrTxa
  tyeSi Winka da ali.
  erbokvercxs uwvavs Svilebs
  melano – devis qali”.
 garda imisa, rom poeturi gadawyvetiT es nimuSi kongenialuria, amavdroulad, fantaziis namdvili feierverkicaa _ aq miTisqmnadoba gvaqvs: vidre patara devebi saocar tafamwvars Seeqcevian, dedis brZanebiT maT xelebi unda daibanon:
`devebi hqviaT, magram urCobas vervin bedavs,
vin Seubrunebs sityvas cxra Svilis gamzrdel dedas”.
 cxrave devs myisve aragvisTvis miumarTavs, qviT didxans uxexiaT TavianTi WuWyiani torebi da ai, axali miTic mzadaa:
`hoda, gamuqda Turme WuWyiTAankara wyali,
mas mere modis ase amRvreuli da Savi.”
mariam wiklaurs marTlac Zalze originalur mignebad unda CaeTvalos aragvis siSavis es saocari definicia. misi mxatvruli ostatoba araTu umrwemess, zrdasrul mkiTxvelsac ki ver daaeWvebs SemoTavazebuli versiis utyuarobaSi. amgvari damajereblobiTaa aRbeWdili leqsi `mzis dabnelebac”. mkiTxvels, meyseulad, Tvalwin warmoudgeba devis qalis mier zRvasaviT dagubebuli `Svidi aragvi”, sadac yvelaferi erTad irecxeba: `juba, fardagi, winda.” mTeli sabadeblis recxa-xexvas diasaxlisisTvis guneba mainc ar aumRvrevia, `cxra Svilis cxra-cxra Sarvlis” Tokze gafenisas, Tqven warmoidgineT, RiRinic ki mosZalebia. magram saRiRinod eqneboda Tu ara saqme qveynierebas, es Tqven gansajeT:
`sarecxma mze daabnela vaime, Cveni brali!
kidev kargi, rom xSir-xSirad ar recxavs devis qali.”
vfiqrob, am or leqss, arc Cven mier ganxilul devebis ciklsa da arc `brandi-brundis” wiaRSi badali ar moepoveba, isini wignis namdvili samkaulebia.
rableseuli formebiT gajerebuli es nimuSebi samyaros uvrces `velebze” kosmiuri gonis usazRvro, daudgromel mimoqcevas warmosaxaven. am dausazRvraobis araerTi saxieri magaliTi ipoveba xalxur sityvierebaSic. Tundac iseTi, mTqmeli mxolod samyaros rom ar sjerdeba da is galaqtikis baton-patronadac gvevlineba. SegaxsenebT amgvari zeswrafvis Semcvel xalxur nimuSebs:
     `zecas viyav, zeca vnaxe, varskvlavebsa davenaxe,
      mTvarem kaci momigzavna: _ Tu aq iyav, raT ar mnaxe!”
am leqsis sxvadasxva versiebi arsebobs, erT-erTSi ki romelic `qarTuli xalxuri poeziis” X tomSi `samkalis” ciklSi gvxvdeba, kidev metad `uceremonio” damokidebuleba inakvTeba ciur sxeulsa da adamians, konkretulad, mzesa da mTqmels Soris:
`heka, oka, biWebo! maRla viyav, cani vnaxe,
maskvlavebs CamoveZraxe,
mTvarem kaci momigzavna, _ aq iyav da ara mnaxe,
mzem pirbade gadixada – modi, axlo damenaxe.”
cnobili eTnologi mirCa eliade, SesaniSnav wignSi `miTis aspeqtebi”, aRniSnavs, rom `xTonur samyaroSi Casvla Tu zecaSi aWra, sikvdili Tu aRdgoma, faqtobrivad, erTi da igivea”. aseTi ambivalenturi WvretiT garesamyaro metad xelSesaxebi da axlobeli xdeba. es unda iyos xalxuri sityvierebis e.w. `cocxal tyuilebSi” daunjebuli sibrZneca da saidumloc.      
casa da miwas Soris mociqulobis aseTive STambeWdav pasaJs vxvdebiT mariamis devebTanac. devebis ojaxi mTlad sicocxlis xes dauflebia _ saaxalwlo naZvis morTva ganuzraxavs. am saocrebis sanaxavad ki `devebi cxra mTis iqidan modian”. vnaxoT, rogor exmianeba mariami xalxis suliskveTebas:
`dediko – mzes da mamiko –
mTvares rtoebze ubneven.
da-Zmebma wvrili varskvlavi
girCebze bRujad ayares.
rac naZvze ar daetia
ukanve, caSi ahyares.”
SesaZloa, am leqsTan yvelaze axlos mainc saqveynod cnobili es xalxuri varianti iyos: `mze dedaa Cemi, mTvare - mama Cemi, es wvril-wvrili varskvlavebi da da Zmaa Cemi.” magram amas albaT, didi mniSvneloba arc aqvs. `devebis ambebSi” Tavmoyrili yvela leqsi utyuarad gvemowmeba mwerlis mier xalxuri Semoqmedebis siRrmiseulad gaazrebasa da mis gonier damuSavebas. ciur sxeulebTan da saerTod, samyarosTan uSualo, Sinauruli da uCveulod mxiaruli mimarTeba ki aqac imgvari ZaliTaa warmoCenili, rom tols ar udebs Taursawyiss. patarebisaTvis ki es samyaro iseTive axlobeli da mosaxelTebelia, rogorc xalxuri gonisaTvis mze, mTvare Tu varskvlavebi. Tqma ar unda, `devT modgmis” saarako ambebi amiT ar sruldeba, win kidev mravalgvari saocreba elis norC mkiTxvels. xom gafrTxilebdiT kidec, araferi gamogrCenodaT. Tuki gulisyuriT xarT, maSin ganvagrZoT:
                `devs erTi gogo ezrdeba,
                nawnavs cxra qali uwnis.
                gadia qerSvils ufqvavs da
                oqros saceriT ucris.”
saocari, devT modgmisaTvis uCveulo saqmianoba Sehyvarebia devis gogos, avtori ki winaswar gvafrTxilebs, SeiZleba Cven bevri verc vera gavigoT ra misi saqmianobisgan, magram sicilisa da Wkuis swavlebisagan Tavi mainc movizRudoTo:
`es gogo Turme leqsebs wers,
tinebze lursmniT kawravs,
im lursmans Zvrasac ver uzam,
rogorc im gogos nawnavs.
amboben Turme rkinisgan
gauWedia as kacs...”
Tuki devis gogo Tavis nawerSi ar Cagvaxedebs da devTdamwerlobas veras gamovrCebiT, iqneb xalxuri variantebidan mainc amovzidoT saintereso da damafiqrebeli paralelebi. uCveulo arsebaTa samyaro ubralo mokvdavTaTvis rom miuRwevelia, amas xelweris garda, maTi kuTvnili sagnebis aramiwieri simZimec mowmobs. devis gogos saweri lursmnisa da rkinisgan gaWedili misi nawnavis uZraoba, dauZabavad gvaxsenebs gabudayebuli amiranisa da mkvdari ambri-arabis moulodnel Sexvedras. rodesac RmerTis naTluls, amirans, misi momrevi qveynad aRaravin eguleboda, swored maSin, gzad mimavali, gadaeyara Tavis mters – ambris: `ambri momkvdariyo, idva uremzed da Tormeti uReli xar-kameCi Zlivs sZravda.”
`ambri Cahqonda dedasa, Tormet uRela xarsao;
gadmovardniyo barkali, miwas arRvevda, myarsao”.
ambris dedis gamomcdel Txovnas: _ `Svilis barkali gadmomivarda miwazed, dabla eTreva, upatiurad xdeba, aswie, Sede isev dedaSvilobas uremzedveo!” amirani, misda gasakvirad, ver asrulebs: `amiranm magis zidilsa aso aigdo, mxarebio”, _ aseTi ironiiT dasZens xalxuri mTqmeli amiranis Sercxvena-gawbilebas, romelmac miwasac ki ver aacila mkvdari ambris fexi.
qarTuli folklorisTvis es Zalze mniSvnelovani epizodi mariam wiklaurs saocari xerxianobiTa da gemovnebiT gardauTqvams patarebisaTvis misawvdom da Sesaqcevar enaze. ver daviJinebT, rom swored `amiranianis” xalxurma versiam ubiZga poet qalbatons devTgogos originaluri aRwerilobisaken, magram faqtia, rom igi kargad icnobs qarTul miTossa da am konkretul epizods. mariamis udidesi gamarjveba isic aris, rom igi utyuarad grZnobs da swvdeba xalxis sulis moZraobas, xalxuri SemoqmedebisTvis esoden niSneul movlenas _ maT karnavalur, sadResaswaulo paToss, daufarav, SeuniRbav iumors. Tavisuflebis es didi nakadi ki poetma qveynad yvelaze Tavisufali da mxiaruli arsebebisTvis, bavSvebisaTvis moimarjva da saocari daxvewilobiT Tavis SemoqmedebaSi gadmoitana. `kacma iseTi unda sTqvas, Sig tyuili ar erioso...” _ isev xalxi Segvagonebs. marTlac ra unda iyos imaze sarwmuno, rac Sens xalxs swams da efiqreba, imaze madliani da axlobeli, rac winapars usaxsovrebia, mravali keriisa Tu buxrispirgamovlil andrezze Tbili da mSobliuri, romelsac axalmoTibul balaxiviT moaqvs Senamde miTis surneli?! espaneli filosofosi migel de unamuno kiTxulobs: `gana `odisea”, es epopea, naklebad realuria, raki masSi saocari sizmrebia naambobio?!.”
 am maradiul simarTleze esaubreba mariam wiklauri amoCemebul mkiTxvels _ patarebs, romelTac Cvengan, didebisgan gasxvavebiT, ganuxrelad swamT saswaulebis.
`brandi-brundis” samyaro ki saswaulebis namdvili samWedloa. samWedloze gamaxsenda – Cvens jadosnur wignSi avtors arc is xalxuri Tqmulebani daviwyebia, devebs mWedlobis mamamTavrebad rom warmogvidgenen. cnobilia, rom es bumberazebi rkinis wrTobisa da Wedvis saidumlos flobdnen, Cveulebrivi mokvdavni ki xSirad eswrafodnen maTgan am sibrZnis miRebas. ar vici, codnis dasaufleblad Tu mxolod cnobiswadiliT mariamsac ganuzraxavs maTi saqmianobisaTvis Tvalis midevneba da saswaulebic mouxilavs:
`qvabi cxra weli Wedes,
irmis jogebiT uxades
gasamrjeloo, mWedlebs.”
an kidev:
`baWiWauris qvabebi
      xuTma Zma devma Weda...”
devebis gamoWedilia devis gogos nawnavic: `amboben Turme rkinisgan gauWedia as kacs”. gikvirT, albaT, am dromde rom mohyoliaT winaprebis codna-gamocdileba Cvens devebs?! magram sakvirveli raRaa, gaxedeT, melanos `cxrave devukas” skolis CanTa amSvenebs, deda ki `wignis yidvas ver audis”. maudis jubaSi gamowyobili patarebi devTmodgmisTvis Cveul yvela saocrebas `devTa legendebis” kvaldakval euflebian:
          `irmis jogebis wvelas,
           iseT fardagis qsovas,
           babo rom qsovda Zvelad.
           saRebavebis xarSvas,
           matylisgan Zafis darTvas...
           grdemlze foladis wrTobas,
           naTel-mironis Zmobas”.
aqac mowodebis simaRlezea mariam wiklauri. warmoidgineT, sinamdvileSi marTlac ase gadaecemoda Taobebs xalxuri codna da sibrZne (mam-papis anderZi). Semoqmedi utyuarad swvdeba koleqtiuri gonis mimoqcevas da SesaSuri sizustiT aRuwers patarebs dasabamieri sibrZnis `modenilobis” wessa da dinamikas. ratom aris mamis anderZis, anu erTgvari `samoqmedo programis” STamomavlobisTvis gadacema sasicocxlod mniSvnelovani, eTnologi zurab kiknaZe davimowmoT: `anderZi Tavisi arsiT, Tavisi wminda saxiT es aris Zaxili winaprisa Taobebis wiaR, damiwebuli mama-papis gaxangrZlivebuli xma... krizisul periodebSi gonieri beladi axsenebda TanamemamuleT im Zvel anderZTa arsebobas da mis kvalze svlis aucileblobas gawyvetaze misuli droTa kavSiris Sesakvrelad”.
mariam wiklauris devebis ciklis mimoxilva ramdenime xalxuri leqsisa da `amiranianis” xalxuri Tqmulebis fonze warvmarTeT. Cven gangeb ar gadavwvdiT qarTul xalxur zRaprebs, sadac aseve mravlad ipovebian devebi da maT winaaRmdeg mebrZoli gmirebi. vfiqrobT, mariamis `devebis ambebi” sworedac miTur-andrezul nimuSebSi Semonaxul personaJebs enaTesavebian, vidre zRaprisas. SesaZloa, gaikvirvoT _ devi devia da ra mniSvneloba aqvs, zRaparSi saxlobs is Tu miTisa da andrezis mkvidriao?! am kiTxvaze kompetenturi pasuxi kvlav b-n zurab kiknaZes aqvs, igi am gansxvavebasac damajereblad gvixsnis: “andrez marTal as” – ambobs kaci, raki mas SeuZlia Tavis qveyanaSi, Tavis sofelSi dResac daimowmos andrezSi momxdari movlenebis kvali, sapirispirod zRapris devebisa da maTi Semmusvreli ufliswulebisa, romlebic ganusazRvrel drosa da sivrceSi moqmedeben.” arc mariam wiklauri daeWvebula im kosmogoniuri aqtebis namdvilobaSi, TavianTi utyuarobis dasturad fSav-xevsurul toponimebSi rom Cawmaxnulan da dRemde saamod uRitineben Semoqmedis gul-gons. raRa saWiroa xelovnurad raimes gamogoneba, roca erTxel ukve `cxovlad dasCenia” dev-kerpTa Tu RvTisSvilTa naterfali Cveni qveynis wyal-Walas da `saSviliSvilod gardascemia” STamomavlobas am saxelebad: avisgori, karTana, cixeTgori, iremTkalo, ninaxi, sakerpo, abudelaurisa Tu wawadas tba, xuSxevi, verxveli da sxva. bunebriv garemoSi rom moxvedrilan, albaT, amitomac grZnoben ase laRad Tavs `brandi-brundis” devebic:
          ` _erTi cixe dgas karTans,
             wyali Caudis karTan.
             Sig sami devi saxlobs,
             vervin mibedavs axlos.”
dev baWiWaursac Tavi Sin miuCnevia da araferi awuxebs garda stomaqis gaZRebisa: `cixegors cxraTaviani
                devi zis _ baWiWauri.”
realur xevsurul toponimTan Tu hidronimTan gvaqvs saqme maSinac, roca avtori fxiturs axsenebs, radgan xevsureTSi am saxelwodebis adgilic aris da tbac:
`fxiturze ismis tkacani
 keras rom cecxli anTia,
 adre amdgara devqali,
 monatrebia atria.”
adre ukve aRvniSneT, rom xalxuri mTqmelisa da mariam wiklauris amocana TavianTi qmnilebebisTvis utyuarobis miniWebis mcdelobaa. mariamis warmatebis erT-erTi sawindari ki mSobliuri toponimikis xerxianad SerCeva da gamoyenebac gaxlavT. am xerxianobas kidev erTi udidesi gamarTleba aqvs, rasac SeuZlebelia Tvali movuxuWoT. avtori, TamaS-TamaS, patarebs samSoblos moaxilvinebs da wveT-wveT misi sakraluri adgilebis saxelebsac awvdis. Tuki leqsebiviT mJRer am toponimebze maT fexi daucdebaT da waiborZikeben, wamomdgarni ukve meti sijiutiTa da SemarTebiT Seuyvebian `wvrilxvlikebiviT” xveul bilikebs, sabolood, eRirsebaT kidec `laSaris gorze Sadgoma...”
rogorc miTsa da andrezSi, mariamis devebis ambebic, sabolood, kerpTa anu bumberazTa damarcxebiT sruldeba:
            `devT samans gadmoalajebs
            erTi yoCaRi yma
            da kivilaanT goridan
            ise dasWyivlebs devT,
            gaisuseba suyvela...
            me ki madls vwirav RmerTs.
           ... da dgeba qveynad naTeli –
            yvela borotis mZle.”
magram sayovelTao groteskul-karnavaluri wesiT, mariamuli samyaros devTa marcxi warmoudgeneli da dauSvebelia, maTSi xom borotebis natamalic ar budobs. arc groteski moicavs damarcxeba-gamarjvebas, is mxolod iRebs da acnobierebs samyaros orsaxovnebas. Tavisi Seumcdari gumaniT mariamsac mouxelTebia es mozeime xalxuri suli da, albaT, amitomacaa misi devebis `marcxi” pirobiTi da iseTive mxiarul-Sesaqcevi, rogoric mTeli cikli devTambebisa am wignSi. es avtoriseuli qmnilebebi am ganwyobilebiTac esisxlxorcebian Semoqmedebas xalxisa, romelic cdilobda yvela zebunebrivi movlena Tavisi Zalisa da `SaZlebisaebr” amoexsna, `axloiT ganeCxrika”, an Tavad gaziduliyo amoucnobisaken. mec am fonze msurda meCvenebina, raoden Zalumad eTanadeba xalxis suls mariam wiklauriseuli samyaro, rogor sZens igi axal vitalobas xalxur sibrZnes, rogor uqmnis axal yalibs, riTac gamZleobasa da sicocxlisunarianobas unarCunebs mas.                                         
Cems sadisertacio naSromSi `groteski qarTul folklorSi~, xalxur SemoqmedebaSi gadaWarbeba-gazviadebis nimuSTa mimoxilvisas, erTgan aRvniSnav, rom `nacarqeqias mier devebis damorCileba erT-erTi umTavresi groteskuli pasaJia, sadac srulebiT warmoudgenelia ZalTa Tanafardoba da adgili xerxisa da gonebis zeims eTmoba.” es azri mariam wiklauris devTciklsac Tamamad SeiZleba mivusadagoT iseve, rogorc iaxsris  sworupovari laRoba _ Tavad mariams:
`avisgor cixes ageben devebi _ cxrani Zmania:
cxraniv qvas ezidebian, karavs ver Sasdves Tavia.
me ki martuam aviRe, Saudev karis Tavia...
erTmanecs eubnebian: `es Cvenze Zaliania.”
diax, devebze `Zaliania” saocari wignis, `brandi-brundis” Adiasaxlisi _ mariam wiklauri. Tanamedrove saymawvilo poeziaSi igi namdvil avtor-mTqmelad gvevlineba. is demiurgia – Tavad qmnis axal, 21-e saukunis miToss ise, rom wamiTac ar swydeba fesvebs. xalxis wiaRidan nasazrdoebi misi usamano fantazia uzadod gardaTqvams xalxur margalitebs ymawvilTa enaze. rogorc xati moenes, ise aqadagebs arsTa gamrige Tavis unj ymas winare ambebiT. `nuravis hgonia advili iyos sabavSvo leqsis da moTxrobis dawera, yvelaze Zneli swored esaa, da Tu ar RvTiuri niWiT mironcxebuls da suliT mdidars, ar SeuZlian gaxdes sabavSvo mwerali...” da Tu ara RvTiuri madliT cxebul vaJa-fSavelas, vis unda verwmunoT am azris simarTleSi?!.
                                              
                                         

sofio jafariZe





gamoyenebuli literatura:
          
mariam wiklauri-ZiZiguri, `brandi-brundi”, Tb., 2005 w.

a.SaniZe, xalxuri poezia, xevsuruli I., tf., 1931w.

qarTuli xalxuri poezia, t. I, miTologiuri leqsebi, nakveTi meore, Tb., 1973

vaJa-fSavela, t. 5, publicisturi da eTnografiuli werilebi, Tb., 1961 w.

qs. sixaruliZe, `qarTuli xalxuri sityviereba”, Tb., 1970 w.

z. kiknaZe, `avTandilis anderZi”, Tb., 2001 w.

s. jafariZe, `groteski qarTul folklorSi” (sadisertacio naSromi), Tb., 2006 w.



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